copyright 2004 Mary Sutherland
Continued from Page One.

Poverty Point

At the very same time -- circa 1,000 B.C. -- we find the construction of the first real "city" in the United States -- at a site archaeologists call "POVERTY POINT," along
the Mississippi River in Louisiana. "Here," according to Lynda Schaffer, "Berber-style MOUND-BUILDING in the New World begins with startling suddenness" (Native
Americans Before 1492, p. 6).

Poverty Point was a TRADING CITY, called by some a chalcolithic Berber Singapore, through which the copper wealth of the Mississippi River and the Great Lakes
was funnelled. Copper from Lake Superior, notes Ronald Mason, made it all the way to the Gulf Coast and eventually to the Old World; and north-south trade with
the "Red Ochre Culture" is  proved by the Wisconsin Archaeologist. Observes R. Ben Madison --

Utilizing Megalithic ideas, Poverty Point's mounds were aligned so as to predict the vernal and autunmal equinoxes. At its peak, between 1000 and 700, Poverty Point
had a population of over 5,000 people. Its direct territorial control took in the Mississippi Valley in Mississippi, Louisiana and southern Arkansas.  There were also
noted two distinct districts in the city.

The Phoenician ships with their Israelite traders/buyers used this port on the Mississippi for buying the ore that was transported down the river from Lake Superior
and the Isle Royale. The fact that Poverty Point was divided into two districts points to a Canaanite-Phoenician/Berber quarter and a quarter for the Israelites who
traveled on the Phoenician ships. Evidently, a large quantity of the copper ore stockpiled by David for use in the Temple passed through Poverty Point. Later,
David's son Solomon continued importing the ore from Lake Superior for his grandiose building projects -- until it was finally exhausted.

The Invasion of the Dannites

The Old Copper Berbers mined copper and their population multiplied for almost 1000 years before a major revolution took place. Back in Europe the Berbers of
Iberia and Western Europe were eventually reduced to little more than a collection of placenames after a massive invasion of Celts erupted from the east. These
Danites  were migrating Israelite tribes from the Black Sea area, spawned a culture known to the archaeologists as the Hallstat-La Tene Culture. Emerging in central
Europe and exploding to the west some fifty years later, the Danites  pushed the Canaanite Berbers to the far north regions of Norway, Finland and Russia. A few
pockets remained in the Basque areas of Europe and in Pictland in northern Britain.

The Canaanite-Berber cultures of Western Europe were savagely disrupted by the invading Israelites (Dan). Refugees -- first a trickle, then a flood -- began to flee
from the ceaseless predations of this migrating people from the East. Thousands boarded their boats and set sail for the New World; and a massive surge of Berber
immigration to North America from North Africa and the Iberian Peninsula was underway -- as proven by a myriad of cultural innovations from the Beaker Group
culture which burst upon the North American scene. Professor Barry Fell dates a MAJOR WAVE of "Iberian" (i.e. Canaanite-Berber) colonists to the New World to this
period (America B.C., frontpiece).

Explains R. Ben Madison --

At this point in the archaeological record, Berber cultural traits appear suddenly and mysteriously all across the eastern United States and in the Caribbean. North
African bent-stick and split-stick hafting techniques for grooved stone axes, for example, spread throughout the region. Agriculture, pottery, earthen mounds, and
"new artifacts" arrived suddenly (Mason, 202). In Central America, pottery dating from this period is virtually identical to that being produced by North African Berbers
(Kennedy 1971, 270f). All over the northeastern part of North America the dominant "Vinette 2" style of pottery shows clear Iberian Beaker influence (Kehoe, 290f).
At the same time, The Old Copper Berbers in southeastern Wisconsin, Michigan, Illinois and Indiana began to employ the use of RED OCHRE in their burial rites in
large quantities. Archaeologists often refer to this stage of Berber development as a "Red Ochre Culture" (Mason 224). But it is important to note that the Old Copper
and Red Ochre "cultures" were in truth a single entity (WA 67: 229; Griffin, 239; Map 3). This use of red ochre in burial rites is, needless to say, a well-known feature
of Berber culture (Camps 1974, 173ff). -- The Berber Project, pp. 13-14.

According to the Greek historian Herodotus (484?B.C. - 425B.C.), Berbers wore what we call "Mohawk" haircuts -- like many North American Indian tribes. Herodotus
also mentions that the Berbers engaged in the same kind of "vision quest" commonly found in North American cultures (Herotodus: The History, 4: 172ff). "To this
day," adds Madison, "Berbers have the same kind of animal legends as North American Indian mythology (Hart, 164f). Berbers had arrowheads, atlatls (spear
throwing devices), WORE FEATHERS IN THEIR HAIR, and wore fringed leather clothing, exactly like the Native American peoples of North America (Kennedy 1971,
272f)." (P. 14).

Following this Great Migration around 500 B.C., we are left with three large and substantial Canaanite/Berber groups in the New World. The first -- which had settled
around Lake Superior and Wisconsin in approximately 1430 B.C. -- was named the "Old Copper Culture" by the archaeologists. Its continuation, the "Red Ochre
Culture," spread through Wisconsin, Michigan, Illinois and Indiana. The second group settled in and around Poverty Point, Louisiana circa 1000 B.C. Finally the third
group, which was the third great wave of Berber immigration, arrived shortly after 500 B.C. and was instrumental in the emergence of the Adena Culture

All these groups, explains R. Ben Madison, maintained some contact with their parent civilization, the Beaker groups, back in Europe and North Africa. But when the
Danites  exploded into Spain and pushed the Canaanite-Berbers out, this disrupted what was left of the Beaker trade with the New World and, at roughly the same
time, "for reasons not yet understood," the Isle Royale copper mines were abandoned and there occurred a substantial decline (in the New World) in the use of
copper to manufacture everyday tools and utensils. Jim Bailey writes that around Lake Superior, which was a focus of Canaanite/Berber colonization in those days,
modern Ojibwe Indian legends say that their ancestors drove out a race of white miners (Sailing to Paradise. N.Y.: Simon & Schuster, 1994. P. 30ff). At the same time
that the Danites/Celts  drove the Berber Beaker culture (also, Picts) out of western Europe, the Poverty Point culture (the Berber Beaker trading outpost in the New
World) also collapsed. The reason the Poverty Point culture collapsed is not sure, but it seems its inhabitants dispersed to the West.

However, one Berber culture in North America survived -- the "Red Ochre" culture in Wisconsin. From this culture (along with the new influx of Berbers from Spain) a
new civilization was beginning to emerge -- the ADENA CULTURE.

The Adena Mound-builders

The umbilical cord between Western Europe and North Africa was cut when the Israelite Celts/Danites  invaded Europe circa 500 B.C. But, like the Phoenix rising out
of the ashes, the Berber culture was revived -- and from a different quarter after North Africa and the Iberian Peninsula fell under the influence of Carthage.

According to R. Ben Madison the remnants of the Berber-Beaker culture on the Iberian Peninsula -- now mixed with Danite/Celtic or "Celtiberian" peoples -- began to
trade with Carthage. The remaining Berber economies such as Talseia (Tarshish) began to decline while, at the same time, the Poverty Point culture faded back into
the Louisiana bayou country and its inhabitants fled to Texas. As a result of the situation in Spain, the Berbers returned to the New World in Carthaginian ships to
begin regular trade with the American Northeast.

By approximately 200 B.C. the Berber descendants of the Red Ochre Culture expanded into what is now Ohio where, notes Madison, "Libyan Berber colonists were
arriving in greater and greater numbers, perhaps to staff the trading posts that sprang up in the river valleys east of the Mississippi, especially the valley of the upper
Ohio River in Ohio and West Virginia -- probably the colony Diodorus Siculus wrote about" (The Berber Project, p. 16).
Etowah Mound

At this time a new, Canaanite/Berber-derived culture called "ADENA" began to flower in Ohio. The Adena culture emerged from the Berber-dominated "Red Ochre"
tradition -- the descendants of the very people whose ancestors had first mined copper on Lake Superior. "Political leadership in Adena," writes Madison, "was
probably provided by Berbers from Africa."

The first well-known "Mound-builders" in American prehistory were the Adena and, explains Madison, "mound-building was an important art in both their Megalithic
and Beaker phases." In both North Africa and Western Europe the Berbers buried their dead in stone tombs which were then enclosed in large earthen mounds.
Across the Atlantic in North America this Berber custom was continued -- many mound-builder tombs are EXACTLY the same layout, a rock tomb covered in an
earthen mound (Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, p. 55).

The historic copper trade apparently continued -- or was revived. Copper ingots of IDENTICAL "ox-hide" shape have been found on both sides of the Atlantic,
proving that around 200 B.C. there was a revival of the regular Atlantic trade between the Mediterranean and North America. This involved copper from Wisconsin,
set down the Mississippi River and out to Europe. Bruce J. Trigger reveals that there were also Adena sites in Maryland -- suggesting traffic up thr Potomac and
Monongahela rivers from the Atlantic into the American interior (Handbook of North American Indians, p. 29).

At roughly the same time, claims Harvard Professor Barry Fell, waves of "Iberian Punic Colonists settled in North America" (Fell 1976, 169ff).
"In 1838," writes R. Ben Madison, "a Talseian (Iberian) inscription was discovered in Mammoth Mound, an ADENA SITE at Moundsville, West Virginia. It was
immediately pronounced by French and American linguists to be Berber, Libyan, or Numidian. The brief inscription explains that the mound was a burial site for a
notable named Tadach, and that his wife had it built in his memory. Similar inscriptions are found in other Adena mounds (McGlone, 9ff). This, and another nearby
stone inscription, was written in the PUNIC language, in Iberian letters (Fell 1976, 157f). In Oklahoma, a Punic inscription -- apparently some sort of "hymn to the sun"
-- was discovered and dated to approximately the time of the first Carthaginian arrival in the New World, while a nearby inscription in Iberian script marks the grave
stone of a notable named Haga (Fell 1976, 159f). The Anubis Caves in the Oklahoma Panhandle contains an inscription in Libyan letters which Fell claimed was
"Arabic." However, most scholars point out that it is, in fact, Berber. The Iberian/Punic alphabet has also been found on inscriptions in Iowa, Massachussetts, Spain
and Lebanon -- showing the Middle East origin of the Mound-builder Berbers.

"Herodotus describes 'a place in Libya,' beyond the Pillars of Hercules (i.e. past the Straits of Gilbralta) where the Carthaginians traded for precious metals. He wrote
that the local natives used SMOKE SIGNALS to communicate over long distances -- an obvious reference to the famous Native American custom (Herodotus, 4: 196).
Later on, the Vikings, evidently on the basis of the profound and obvious similarities between North American and North African inhabitants, languages and cultures,
formed the impression that North America was simply a peninsula of North Africa itself (Riley, 250). -- The Berber Project, p. 17.

Elder Charles B. Thompson was one of the first Mormon writers to identify the "mound-builders" with the Nephites whose story is told in the Book of Mormon.
According to the Book of Mormons, there were two races here ages ago. One was the Nephites and the other were the Lamanites.  The  Nephites  were a white
skinned, red haired , civilized, industrious people... whereas the Lamanites were an idle, savage, and vicious people delighting in war and bloodshed...  The order
was given to wipe the Nephites off the face of the earth, along with all record of their existence. (Deut.) In some battles  thousands were slain who were piled up in
heaps upon the face of the land and then earth thrown upon them. This accounts for the numerous mounds and tumuli found in this country.

Josiah Priest, American Antiquities, was one of the first to give full documented accounts of this lost race, based on abundance of proof from recent discoveries.
History informs this  nation of Nephites were brought down and destroyed by the Lamanites... God stirred up the Lamanites to camp against them round about, and
to raise forts against them with a mount, and thus they were brought down. (Deut.)  After Priest completed his report, most of his  books and documents concerning
this was destroyed.

The wars of the Jaredites (Nephites) and  the Lamanites
Mormons Take Sacred Tablets Claiming them as their Own.

According to the Book of Mormons, after the Genesis Flood , during the time of 'The Tower of Babel, a group sailed from the Region of the Tower of Babel to North
America . This group of peoples were the Jaredites.  According to the Morman Book of Ether, a group of people called the Jaredites  fled the Tower of Babel at least
3000 years before Christ.   Because they were a righteous people the LORD did not confound their language, and a Prophet led them called "The Brother of Jared"
(his actual name was Mahonri Moriancumr). All of the Jaredite names are Hamitic, and the descendants of Ham were black and most likely what we know today as the
ancient Olmecs.

"In the year 1883 B.C. an invasion of Spain took place from the confines of North Africa. Having become a civilized land and wealthy due to changes in climate and
the presence of many producing gold mines, Spain aroused the greed of Egypt and other North African nations.
A king by the name of GERION or DEABUS, with a large army and many ships, conquered Spain and forced the inhabitants to dig gold for their new African
overlords. Many Spanish slaves died from overwork under this tyranny"
Osyris slew Gerion in 1849 B.C. ,, upon which part of his tribe took to ship and sailed to the New World. A tradition found among the Toltecs of Mexico and preserved
by Ixtlilxochitl declares there once were giants in their land. Even the date of the arrival of these giants has been preserved by the Toltec historian. It was 520 years
after the flood.

The First Battle of Cummorah
By 600 BC the Jaredites had divided into two warring camps.. Their armies fought  on the Hill Ramah (which is also the Hill Cummorah and which is now located in
Western New York State).  A man named Ether "hides " the records of his people (gold plates).

The Second Battle of Cummorah and the Nephites

Mosiah 5:65 mentions a Nephite search party had come across ruins of an earlier civilization (Jaredite). To prove this find they brought back 24 gold plates and some
armor and weapons. The breastplates are descibed as large.

About 100 BC, a group of Nephites (called the Limhites) who had broken away from the main body of Nephites migrate to the area near the Hill Cummorah. They find
the gold plates of the Jaredites. Later they are reunited with the main body of Nephites and add the Jaredite plates to the main body of plates
A thousand years after the Jaredite battle on the Hill Ramah, the Nephites and Lamanites battle their way Northward until they arrive at the same hill (now called
Cummorah). They also fight to the last Nephite warrior. The Lamanites who survive will become the American Indians. After the Final Battle, a man named Moroni
buries the gold plate records of his people in the hill. Fourteen hundred years later the Mormons 'claim'  he returns as the Angel Moroni and leads Joseph Smith to
the plates (1823)

Nothing is  mentioned more prominently in the Jaredite records than the Hill Shim where their great battle of destruction took place. This being so, the records were
probably found in or near the Hill Shim (or Cum) which gave the Nephites an apposite warning of their  own future should they  disobey the commandments of God,
as well as a place name to tinker with and transform into their own tongue. It may also have given Ammaron the idea to hide his own records in the same hill, where
Mormon recovered them years later.. The same association of name and place similarly seems to have given Mormon's son Moroni the idea to hide the records, with
his additions, in another hill some twenty-three hundred miles to the north following his own lost battles.

Nothing is more common in the study of languages than the observation of interchange and "drift" of vowels and consonants. Ramah is obviously an earlier form of
Cumorah, "ramah = mora". And it is  suspected that  Cu was a Nephite addition, being probably equivalent to whatever was particularly striking about the hill to the
Nephites. Cu-morah is therefore probably an iterative of the same description of the hill in two separate languages.

Most  Book of Mormon scholars take it for granted that there were two Cumorahs: one in Central America where the Nephites lives out most of their history; the other
in Western New York state near the Finger Lakes where Joseph Smith found the plates. Again, nothing is more common than for migrating folk to take place names
with them and apply them to new sites.

Shim (meaning hill of the land of Shem?) was known to both the Jaredites and Nephites, and that it was in the hill Shim where Ammaron deposited his records --  and
from which Mormon later took them. The Book of Mormon index (p. 329) confirms that Ramah and Cumorah refer to this same hill  and it would not be too difficult for
one to link Shim with the Central American Cumorah. The  consonantal shifts into the change in pronunciation since the letter C commonly undergoes a sound shift
from "k" to "ch" or "sh" and vice versa., as in modern Italian, Romanian, and Hebrew (remember how Joshua tested the Canaanite infiltrators by having them
pronounce the word "shibboleth"? The Canaanites could pronounce it only as "shibolet" .. It seems the "th" sound has been retained only in modern Icelandic,
English, and Spanish. This Shim = Cum + Ramah (or "morah").

Book of Mormon scholar John Sorenson suggests that Shim actually lay between the Jaredite land of Moron (source of Moroni's name? [fellow from (or born in )
Moron]) and the hill Ramah, or Cumorah. Sorenson's reading of the B of M puts Shim not far from the eastern seashore, south of modern Veracruz, probably in the
Tuxtlas mountain mass,  in the Sierra Madres some 80 miles further south. . Sorenson adds that no place was of greater importance in Nephite history since they
struggled to the death for almost 35 years in or near Shim in southern Veracruz.

Veracruz is on the Gulf of Mexico. The  Nephites must have fought in slow retreat from the area of the narrow neck of land  northward over many generation. They
would thus have been compelled to retreat along the Gulf Coast until they hit the Mississippi River. Because of its width near the Gulf, they'd have had to retreat
almost straight north along its west bank until reaching a point where the river could be crossed. This would have brought them to the Finger Lakes area just south of
Lake Erie, the exact location of the Second Cumorah near which the Nephites were wiped out. Anthropologists have found enormous stacks of bones in this very
area, indicating some mighty pre-Columbian battles in the region. And given the fact that the modern Indian tribes of the region were never very numerous, one
wonders where else all the bones could have come from. Besides which we know that Moroni was exhausted and probably wounded during his last battle and could
not have wandered far to hide the plates. And Joseph Smith found the plates about 1200 years later in this exact location.

In brief, while I can't tell you where the Nephites found the Jaredite record, they did. Moroni had it (see Ether 13:1) and so in all probability did his father Mormon --
and possibly even more remote Nephite ancestors.
But just before their final overthrow, a man by the names of Mormon took their record containing their history and sacred writings... to come forth in due time for a
sign to Israel, that the time of their redemption had come...

This account also agrees with the Indian traditions which  claim that their forefathers  were once in possession of a sacred Book, which was handed down from
generation to generation, and at last hid in the earth; but these oracles are to be restored to them again and then they shall triumph over their enemies and regain
their ancient country.  The Mormons took this as the sign this Race was the Lost Children of Israel and that now with them, the Mormons,  being in possession of the
Lost Books, they would be able to fulfill the prophecies..thus a new religion was born...Mormonism.

It seems that both the jaredites and the nephites were Mound Builders and differed both racially and culturally from the Native American Indians which came later. As
late as 1830 newspaper reports were being published, telling of Mormon elders claiming that the ancient Old World peoples who migrated to the Americas came
ashore in places as far away as the shores of South America: "on the coast of Chili 600 years before the coming of Christ..." and that from these Old World colonists
"descended all the Indians of America.". From 1822 onward the popular press was filled with discoveries of new and perplexing southern ruins and relics..

The Wallam Olum -- The Red Record -- is the Delaware's record of their ancient history, told in the form of an epic song. "Recorded in pictures and words, the saga
tells of the rise to glory of the Lenni Lenape and their great Lenape family, also called the Algonquians, the most populous and widespread Native American
language group in ancient North America" (The Red Record, translated and annotated by David McCutchen. Garder City, NY: Avery Publishing Group, Inc. 1993. )

As the Lenape migration neared the Mississippi River, they came upon agricultural lands where permanent settlements became possible. The Lenape soon
discovered that farther to the east were the powerful people called the TALEGAS -- best translated as "foreigner" or "stranger." According to Heckewelder [an early
missionary], the Lenape arrived at the Mississippi and followed it downstream to where it meets the Missouri River. This is the location of CAHOKIA, the most likely
site for the "Talega king" in IV:52 [of The Red Record]. The great walled city of Cahokia, near where east St. Louis is today, was a commercial, political, and religious
center of the last and most spectacular era of Moundbuilder culture -- the Mississippian Temple Mound phase. Cahokia has been described as "a cross between New
York, Washington, D.C., and the Vatican." -- The Red Record: The Wallum Olam, p. 107.


A.J. Conant, a member of the Academy of Science of St. Louis, Missouri, is quoted below:

Atop the mounds constantly burned the flames that were only extinguished at the end of the old year and were relighted by the rays of the sun when the priests
focused the rays of the newly born Sun on the wood of the sacrificial fires. This took place amidst the most extraordinary solemnity. -- The Roots of the American
Indian, p. 59.
According to early reports the fires were extinguished during the winter solstice when the days became shortest and the sun reached the lowest point in the southern
sky, and the weather became very cold. "Then, to give life to the dying sun, the rays of the king of the heavens were focused on the altar of the sacrifices in order
that, with the light of the fire that burned, he could see his way back to the north" (ibid., p. 53). This is the EXACT same ceremony that was celebrated in ancient
Rome, Egypt and Babylon!
The people who constructed the mounds and the pyramids all paid homage to the same gods because they were of one blood and language. Foremost among their
gods was the PLUMED SERPENT called Piasa


The ancient people not  only had developed a great urban civilization based upon an agrarian economy but construsted  the ingenious system of interlocking canals.
With amazing skill, the engineers developed an internal system of navigation, linking the lakes and rivers with the various metropolitan centers of the region, and it
was by means of these interconnecting waterways that the cities received the needed produce. The Mississippi River served as the principal transportation artery.
Dr. G.C. Swallow, in referring to one of these canals, said, "One of them, that I examined, measured 53 feet wide and was 14 feet deep."  More of these canal  system
was created interlinking water routes from the Great Lakes. Many archaeologists and investigators say that the 'artificial' rivers in the southern part of the United
States are a gift handed down by this mysterious race.


[The Lenape] discovered that the country east of the Mississippi was inhabited by a very powerful white, red haired nation who had many large towns built on the
great rivers flowing through their land. Those people (as I was told) called themselves TALLIGEW or TALLEGWI....Many wonderful things are told of this famous
people. They are said to have been remarkably tall and stout, and there is a tradition that there were GIANTS AMONG THEM, people of a much larger size than the
tallest of the Lenape.  (Moundbuilders of Ancient America, by Robert Silverberg. Greenwich, CT: N.Y. Graphics Society, 1968. P. 54f).

So the Hopewell Indians called themselves TALLEGWI. This is, of course, the same ancient TELL or TALO root which is found in Finnish TALOSSA, the TALAYOTIC
culture of the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean off the east coast of Spain, and the BEAKER (Canaanite/Pictish) cultures of Toulouse, France. (See our article,
Unraveling the Origins of the Mysterious Olmec!). Notes R. Ben Madison: "If any more proof were needed, it is this: The same Lenape legend refers to these
Talossans both as Tallegwi and as Alligewi, with or without the initial T. This is a fundamental Berber phenomenon: in Morroccan Berber, for example, the name of
the ethnic group is Amazigh, while the name of the language is Tamazight. The T functions as an article or gender marker. The SAME grammatical feature appears
to be at work among the Hopewell: ALLIGEWI = Amazigh; TALLEGWI = Tamazight. This alternation, with and without the initial T, only makes sense in one human
language, and that is Berber" (The Berber Project. Second (Revised) Edition. 1997. P. 19).

When the migrating Lenni Lenape reached the Mississippi River, they "sent a message to the Talegas, requesting permission to settle in their neighborhood as
friends and allies."

The Red Record goes on to describe what happened next:

The Talega king denied this request, but promised to permit the Lenape to pass through his lands to find homes farther east. Peacefully, the Lenape began to cross
the Mississippi. But when the Talega King saw how numerous the Lenape were, he became frightened, and ordered his warriors to attack. Talega war canoes swept
across the river as armored Talega regiments massacred the Lenape who had already crossed. Enraged by this treachery, the Lenape vowed to "Conquer or die!"
and joined with their Iroquois allies in an epic war of vengeance. Led by Sharp One (IV:55), the Lenape forces stormed across the Mississippi, defeating the Talegas,
and besieging and capturing many of the Talega towns. -- Pp. 107-108.

After a long and difficult struggle, Talega resistance was crushed (V:57-59). The Red Record shows that four sachems [chiefs] came and went before the final victory
(V:55-59). The war between the Lenape-Iroquois allies and the Talega must have been fierce, with the final sieges of the Talega Wars among the largest battles ever
fought in ancient America. Formidable earthworks from this period can be found throughout the Ohio Valley. One such stronghold, Fort Ancient, had palisaded walls
13 feet high and 5 miles long, and could hold up to 10,000 people. -- P. 111.

As we have seen, both Iroquois and Algonquian Indian legends tell of wars against the Mound-builders -- whom they called "the Snakes" (Serpents represent
Wisdom)  It is on record that an elderly Indian informant in the mid-19th century recalled that the "First Dispersion" of his people -- the Mound-builders -- began in the
eastern United States, near the Alleghany mountains of Pennsylvania ("Oral Literature and Archaeology," by Robert J. Salzer. The Wisconsin Archaeologist (1993).
P. 101); this refers to the breakup of the Hopewell "interaction sphere." The Lenni Lenape also recalled (in The Red Record) in the late 18th century that "many
hundreds of years ago" their ancestors indeed went to war with the Mound-builders in what is now Michigan, which would have to be Hopewell country. Missionary
John Heckwelder recounted this bit of Lenape oral history in 1819 -- which describes the breakup of the Hopewell "interaction sphere":

Having thus united their forces the Lenape and Mengwe [Iroquois] declared war against the Alligewi [Tallegwi], and great battles were fought in which many warriors
fell on both sides....No quarter was given, so that the Alligewi at last, finding that their destruction was inevitable if they persisted in their obstinacy, abandoned the
country to the conquerors and fled down the Mississippi River, from whence they never returned. -- Mound Builders of Ancient America, 54f).

This is, without doubt, an accurate account of wars against the Hopewell by the Algonquians and Iroquois -- both of whom were invading the American Midwest at this
time. Especially interesting is the fact that the Hopewell fled south, down the Mississippi River, and never returned. Also, they fled to the far Southwest. In the
Southwest we find a very similar culture again with a mysterious past . Could they have taken flight and re-located in the land of their cousins at Pueblo Bonito. If they
did, then the story of the Mound Builders in Burlington WI may be even more of intrique than originally thought and linking the Mississippian culture to Chaco Canyon  
and dare I say, the civilisations of Mars. .  See Chaco Canyon

The people of Chaco Canyon , the hub of the Anasazi world., archaeologists  realized  from the architure had am  INTIMATE KNOWLEDGE OF THE SUN AND THE
STARS. The great kiva at Casa Rinconada in Chaco Canyon  has a main doorway that faces celestial north. "This is the fixed point in the nighttime sky round which
all stars seem to revolve. Four huge wooden pillars once defined the cardinal directions, symbolizing the four trees that Earth people once climbed to reach their
homeland" . At solstice sunrise the rays of the sun enter to the right of the doorway and shine into a niche in the northeast wall -- marking the northernmost journey
of the sun.

The semi-circular plaza was surrounded by more than 800 rooms at the town's peak, all within easy reach of the sacred kivas that were the heart of the settlement.
Archaelogist Stephen Lekson of the Natioanl Park Service tells about  nine major Chacoan "Great Houses" that had been erected -- each a massive undertaking--
estimating  that each room required 40 beams, each from a separate pine or fir tree growing in a forest nearly 40 miles away -- to say nothing of tons of stone and

In the early 1900s some of the pioneer archaeologists who excavated at Pueblo Bonito noticed what appeared to be the remains of tracks converging on Chaco
Canyon from the outside. "It is only in the past twenty years," writes Brian Fagan, "that AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHS and SATELLITE IMAGERY have revealed the full
extent of the web of more than 400 miles of unpaved PREHISTORIC ROADWAYS that link Chaco to over thirty outlying settlements. The Chacoans had no wheeled
carts or draft animals, yet they constructed wide roads across the desert, shallow tracks up to 40 ft wide, cut a few inches into the soil, sometimes marked by shallow
banks or even low stone walls. The highways run straight for many miles, some of them 40 to 60 miles long, connecting as many as half-a-dozen settlements to one
another and to Chaco" In its own way, the Chaco road system is as imposing as that of the South American Incas. We are yet unsure as to the purpose of the roads,
being that they seem to lead no where.

In Arizona we can find literally hundreds of towns that were built in these rocky canyons. Even today these stuctures of stone and adobe give testimony about the
level of cultural development attained by these inhabitants. The most well-known of these towns is Casa Grandes, located in the San Miguel River Valley in
Chihuahua, Mexico -- where hundreds of these huts can still be found. They are also located in the Gila River basin in Arizona.

The Gila River flows from the eastern mountains of the Southwest into the mighty Colorado River -- through a mesquite-studded desert landscape. The summers are
intensely hot in this semi-arid country, but the banks of the Gila were a veritable oasis, with fertile soil and abundant wildlife. In this area University of Arizona
archaeologist Emil Haury excavated the  MOUNDS known as Snaketown -- so-called after the Pima Indian name of Skoaquik: "Place of Snakes." This is extemely
important because the snake was central to the ritual and artistic functions of the Mound-builders of the Mississippi Valley, and was also the name ("the Snakes")
given to the Tallegewi by the Lenni Lenape!
Not only do we see a connection of the 'snake' with the inhabitants of the southwest but again the building of waterways. Snaketown, or Skoaquik, was an important
lowland town occupied for many centuries, for the entire span of time the Anasazi people lived at Mesa Verde in Colorado. According to Brian Fagan, "Snaketown
prospered because the HOHOKAM were masters of desert irrigation. They dug a 3-mile CANAL to water fields near the Gila River, a canal so efficient it remained in
use for the entire lifetime of the settlement" (Kingdoms of Gold, Kingdoms of Jade, p. 211).The same type of systems are used today in Arizona.

The Apache also validates the tradition of an exodus from the Northeast . The Apaches still relate in their stories and legends how these migrating tribes were forced
to flee to the south from their homeland in the Northeast.  I would like to note here that when the Mormon were forced to leave this area in Wisconsin, Joseph Smith
and his followers followed the same tradition , migrating to the southwest and settling near this area as well as in Utah.  Another note I feel I need to add to this is that
it is my belief that the Hopi Indians are the keepers of the 'lost knowledge' of this ancient race of Mound Builders and religiously keep these secrets yet today.

In the first half of the nineteenth century, Euro-American explorers traveled westward along Wisconsin’s rivers and trails. As they paddled and walked they
encountered areas where the earth was sculpted into birds, animals and even people. Euro-American explorers had found burial mounds in other areas before, but
they had never seen anything like the effigy mounds. Amazed, but unsure what to make of their discovery, they drew maps and wrote reports for newspapers,
scientific journals and even Congress. Soon the Wisconsin Territory had become famous for its mysterious effigies.

“As the years passed, Euro-American farmers and settlers took up residence in Wisconsin. Many mounds were plowed away by farmers who saw them only as
nuisances. Some were carted away by gardeners and bridge-builders who wanted to use the earth they were made of for fill. People dug into the mounds out of
curiosity, or in the hopes of finding valuable objects to sell. Other mounds were simply in the way— in the path of roads, railroads, houses and quarries. Perhaps as
many as 20,000 mounds once existed in Wisconsin. Now less than 5,000 remain. For Native Americans, the mounds are eternally sacred places and connect us to
the land and the supernatural, bring harmony to an unsettled world.


"Thanks to the introduction of new state and Federal laws, Wisconsin’s remaining mounds have now been protected.
According to the Burial Site Protection Law of 1985, Wisconsin progressively defined all Native American mounds as human burial places. The law protects them from
disturbance and destruction, as it does for all cemeteries and family plots.


Although the popular belief today links the mounds to Native American Indians  , evidence disproves this theory. The evidence we have today, that was not destroyed
or hidden, suggests  that  language of the  Mound Builders may have been Berber derived, but we find no evidence showing us  that such a language was ever
spoken  by HISTORIC  Indians in this region.   And for very good reason...They were not Native American Indian!

This area  was overrun by TWO WAVES of invaders from the Northwest. Both the Siouans (Iroquois) and the Lenni Lenape (Algonquians) remember how they drove
out "the Snakes," -- the Mound-building inhabitants of the country. George E. Hyde discusses this in his book Indians of the Woodlands.

There is no real link between any American Indian language and Berger...EXCEPT ONE...
IN THE DESERT SOUTHWEST -- HOKAN . Attempts to link Hokan to other American Indian language families (especially Siouan) have all failed, and the vast majority
of American Indian language specialists today maintain that Hokan is not genetically related to any other family of languages in the New World, and that any
similarities are due either to coincidence or borrowing (Ruhlen 1991, 214ff). -- The Berber Project, p. 20.

The term "Hokan" unites as genetically related a number of North American Indian linguistic stocks, scattered over a large area and previously considered distinct.
Speakers of the Hokan languages are spread throughout California, Arizona, New Mexico, Baja California, Texas and northern Mexico; with outlying groups in
southern Mexico, El Savador, Nicaragua, Honduras and Columbia. None of the Hokan languages are well known, but some of the important ones include Achomawi,
Karok, Chimariko, Pomo, Yana, Diegueno, Washo, Tonkawa, Havasupai and Maricopa.


Now that we have successfully linked the  Wisconsin Hopewell  Mound Builders to the Aztecs as well as the Ancient Builders of Chaco Canyon we will now back step
and ask the question 'Where did the Mound Builders Originate and how are they connected to us. For the answer to this question we can turn back to our biblical

. In Joshua 3:9 we read:

So Joshua said to the children of Israel, "Come here, and hear the words of the Lord your God." And Joshua said, "By this you shall know that the living God is
among you, and that He will without fail DRIVE OUT from before you the CANAANITES and the Hittites and the Hivites and the Perizzites and the Girgashites and the
Amorites and the Jebusites...(New King James Version).
I would like to note that these people then would be among the race of giants that were the men of old that Genesis speaks of.

Later on, in Joshua 11, verses 16-17 and 23, it is recorded that "Joshua took all the land: the mountain country, all the South, all the land of Goshen, the lowland,
and the Jordan plain -- the mountains of Israel and its lowlands, from Mount Halak and the ascent to Seir, even as far as Baal Gad in the Valley of Lebanon below
Mount Hermon...So Joshua took the whole land, according to all that the Lord had said to Moses; and Joshua gave it as an inheritance to Israel...Then the land
rested from war."

Again, in Deuteronomy 7, we read --

When the Lord your God brings you to the land that you are about to enter and possess, and He DISLODGES many nations before you -- the Hittites, Girgashites,
Amorites, Canaanites, Perizzites, Hivites, and Jebusites, seven nations much larger than you -- and the Lord your God delivers them to you and you defeat them, you
must doom them to destruction: grant them no terms and give them no quarter...this is what you shall do to them: you shall tear down their altars, smash their pillars,
cut down their SACRED POSTS], and consign their images to the fire....You shall destroy all the peoples that the Lord your God delivers to you, showing them no
pity....The Lord your God will DISLODGE these peoples before you little by little; you will not be able to put an end to them at once, else the wild beasts would multiply
to your hurt. The Lord your God will deliver them up to you, throwing them into utter panic until they are wiped out. He will deliver their kings into your hand, and you
shall obliterate their name from under the heavens...(Deuteronomy 7:1-2, 5, 16, 22-24, Tanakh).

When Joshua and the Israelites crossed the Jordan River just north of the Dead Sea, they camped a while at Gilgal, then moved to take Jericho and Ai. Afterward,
they returned to Gilgal (Joshua 1-8). After making peace with Gibeon, Joshua led the Israelites through the Valley of Aijalon and defeated the five Amorite kings
(Joshua 9-10). From Makkedah, Joshua launched a SOUTHERN campaign against Lachish, Hebron, Debir and Gaza.

Those of the inhabitants who were not put to the sword by the Israelites, FLED TO EGYPT and sought refuge there. Samuel Purchas, in his book Relations of the
World and the Religions Observed in All Ages, records this flight: "Procopius...affirms, that all the seacoast, in those times, from Sidon to Egypt, was called Phoenicia:
and that when Joshua invaded them, they [those that weren't killed] LEFT THEIR COUNTRY, AND FLED INTO EGYPT..." (1613. Book I, chapter XVIII, p. 85).

After a victorious campaign, Joshua and the Israelites returned to Gilgal for a period of time before launching any more campaigns against the Canaanites. The
Canaanites who had fled the country, however, pushed further into Africa: "...there [in Egypt] multiplying, [the Canaanites] pierced further into Africa; where they

Close to the Pillars of Hercules, on the African side, the vanquished Canaanite refugees built two cities: "They [the Canaanites] BUILT THE CITY OF TINGE AND
TANGER IN NUMIDIA, where were two pillars of white stone, placed near to a great fountain, in which, in the Phoenician tongue, was engraven: WE ARE

In The Complete Works of Josephus, translated by William Whiston, is a footnote on page 110 that corroborates Puechas' record --

Moses Chorenensis sets down the FAMOUS INSCRIPTION AT TANGIER [TANGER] concerning the old CANAANITES driven out of Palestine by Joshua thus: "We are
those exiles that were governors of the Canaanites, but have been driven away by Joshua the robber, AND ARE COME TO INHABIT HERE." -- Grand Rapids: Kregel
Publications, 1988.

In time, these inhabitants of Northern Africa became known as BERBERS and MOORS.

This wave of Canaanite refugees from Joshua's southern thrust expanded rapidly and made their way into the Iberian Peninsula and France -- settling thickly in the
Aude, Herault and the lower Rhone. Here, with their "tastefully decorated" pottery, they survived into Roman times, especially the Tolosati, who lent their name to the
city of Tolosa (French: Toulouse); and the Tolossae, who lived in what is now Provence. "That the tribes of this region were not Celtic [Israelite] (as is often
supposed) is revealed by the fact that the Celtic Gauls -- who always called themselves the Com-broges, or 'fellow-countrymen' (whence Cymru, "Welsh") -- referred
to one of the local tribes as Allo-broges, or 'other-countrymen,' i.e. 'non-Celts'" (The Berber Project, p. 7).

In the Iberian Peninsula itself these Canaanites (known in archaeological parlance as the "Beaker Folk") became famous for their concentration of motillas, which
were a kind of fortified BURIAL MOUND (Iberian Prehistory, by Maria Cruz Castro. Oxford: Blackwell, 1995. P. 106f). The BUILDING OF MOUNDS was a HALLMARK of
Berber and Berber-inspired cultures wherever they migrated to. Writes R. Ben Madison --

Known today among African Berbers as djidar (Ucel, 67f; this appears to be as Arabic word), these mounds were built not only in Africa but throughout the first
Berber expansion known as Megalithism. While the ancient cultures of the Eastern Mediterranean buried their noble dead in rock-hewn tombs, the Megalith-builders
built rock tombs but sealed them inside large earthen mounds (MacKie, 146). The Berber Project, p. 7.

The Beaker Folk's BEAKERS were, it turns out, more famous than their mounds. Their beakers were drinking vessels -- pottery versions of what had long been
woven in North Africa out of esparto grass (The Prehistory of the Mediterranean, by D.H. Trump. New Haven: Yale, 1980. P. 155). They were used for "something like
mead, flavoured with herbs such as meadowsweet or wild fruits" (Cunliffe, 253). Alcoholic drinks were clearly a factor in the Canaanite/Berber/Beaker Groups'
expansion and social acceptance. McBurney notes that in North Africa the Berbers produced beakers in EXACTLY the same style and fashion as their European
contemporaries (The Stone Age of Northern Africa. London: Penguin, 1960. P. 249ff). They decorated them with distinctive "hatched triangles" and other designs;
and the classic Beaker design was rather bell-shaped, so most Beaker People (according to the archaeologists) are referred to as "Bell-Beaker People." "This," adds
R. Ben Madison, "is in distinction to the 'Funnel-Necked Beaker People,' who arose in Germany and Denmark as a fusion between Berbers and immigrant Indo-

The Beaker Folk were fundamentally TRADERS, and wherever they went they were welcomed as friends -- not as hated conquerors. They formed stable outposts,
and archaeology has revealed that their tombs contain multiple generations of family members. One archaeologist's (Trump) research indicates that the Canaanite
Beaker people tended not to settle in large numbers, except in certain places such as the Rhone valley and the Gulf of Lyon region -- particularly Toulouse. What
they lacked in population density, however, they made up for in geographic reach. Writes Madison --

The Berber Beaker People established complex trading networks, and the diverse regions of Western Europe and North Africa were united as never before (Cunliffe,
p. 256). Ivory and ostrich egg shells were highly prized luxuries, and the only source was North Africa, where eager Berber traders did a booming business (Markotic,
91ff). Indeed, the trade between Africa and Spain even predated the Beaker period (Harrison, 157). Of more importance to our story was their lucrative COPPER
TRADE: they brought chalcolithic culture to Western Europe (Trump, 148f) and to do so, imported vast amounts of copper. -- The Berber Project, p. 8).

As time went by, the Canaanite Berbers of North Africa moved in a different direction from their European counterparts. Preoccupied by local affairs, they blocked the
northward expansion of a thriving Black civilization based in the Tassili mountains of southern Algeria. Utilizing superior technology, the Berbers took control of the
arid Saharan steppes, exploiting it for nomadic pastoralism. Their new technology and stratified society "enabled them to subjugate the existing black population...[W]
e are dealing here with a WARRIOR ARISTOCRACY which had gained ascendancy over the black groups of the Sahara: this is the first instance of a pattern which
has been repeated to the present day" (The Berbers, by Brett & Fentress. Oxford: Blackwell, 1996. P.17ff).

In the meantime the Beaker Berbers of the Iberian Peninsula had begun to decline. However, a few isolated groups remained active, such as the inhabitants of the
Balearic Islands who were building fortified towers known as TALAYOTS. These so-called "Talaiotic" people survived well into the Christian era. Archaeology shows
that a similar culture flourished next-door in the island of Sardinia. The native, pre-Roman inhabitants of this island were, all evidence indicates, Canaanite Berbers
(see The Romance Languages, by Harris and Vincent and Le Origini delle Lingue neolatine, by Carlo Tagliavini). If the ancient Balearans were also Berbers -- which
is extremely likely -- then the name of their towers (TALAYOTS) may preserve an indication of what these peoples called themselves.

The Lure of Copper

When the Canaanite-Beaker people rolled across Western Europe from North Africa, they knit that region together by a NETWORK OF TRADING POSTS. The
Berbers were an active sea-going people, known for their long distance ocean voyaging. On the boats that they built they used animal skins for sails and, after a
while, a great shortage of skins for the leather sails threatened to interrupt their maritime activities. This problem was solved by a group of Berbers who set up a large
hunting camp in Arctic Norway near Mount Komsa in Finnmark. From here they annually took large numbers of reindeer out of the herds migrating through the area
and sent the skins to the oak forests of southern Sweden and Conamara in Ireland for tanning with oak bark. Other trading posts appeared in the amber-rich areas
of the Baltic.

In their merchantile voyages and through their Megalithic contacts, the Berbers became aware of the presence of vast deposits of COPPER in the New World.
"Beaker Groups, keen to exploit copper deposits wherever they could be found, began to navigate to the New World. They possessed a geographical advantage...
the easiest route to North America was the Atlantic Current from Iberia or North Africa to the Caribbean (Kehoe, 280)....North America was...treated to a large and
substantial wave of Berber immigrants who brought their culture with them when they settled around the copper mines of Lake Superior and northern Wisconsin"
(The Berber Project, p. 12).

The Canaanite/Berber/Beaker colonists were traders to the very core! They came in search of wealth and found it in copper -- huge amounts of it around Lake
Superior and on Ile Royale, which is reputedly the best source of pure copper on the entire planet! The sudden emergence of what archaeologists have called the
"Old Copper Culture" coincides with large numbers of Berbers who descended on the American Midwest and the St. Lawrence River valley to exploit these new-found

Mary Sutherland is the author of the following books
  • Living in the Light: Believe in the Magic
  • Mysteries: Exploring the Mysteries of Burlington and Southeastern Wisconsin
  • Revelations: Truths Revealed
  • In Search of Ancient Man: Lost in Time
  • The Red Haired Giants
  • Haunted Burlington Wisconsin

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